Grammar & What About the Ampersand? |
The Blue Book of Grammar and Punctuation

& What About the Ampersand?

The ampersand (&): We see it often in our daily communication, which adheres to a modern ethos of speed and brevity as seen in letters, emails, texts, tweets, memos, and notes. The mark is appealing because it helps save character space, it fits right in with other letters’ heights, and many could argue it’s one of English’s better-looking symbols.

With so much presence of the ampersand in contemporary communication, the question now concerns where it fits in formal writing. For writers who want to exchange the mark’s typical blue jeans for dress pants, we’ll explore some guidelines for proper attire.

First, let’s review how the mark & came to be according to Merriam-Webster online and Fowler’s Modern English Usage.

In the late Middle Ages, single letters used as words, such as A or I, were spelled by the phrase “(letter) per se (word),” meaning “(letter) by itself is the word (word).” For the letter/word I, for example, the phrase was I per se I, which means “I by itself is the word I.”

Merriam-Webster and Fowler’s further agree that over time the ampersand symbol evolved into a stylized version of the Latin et, which means “and.” The spelling phrase thus became “& per se and” (“& by itself is the word and”). When said aloud, the phrase was pronounced “and per se and,” which spoken English eventually morphed into “ampersand.”

Merriam-Webster cites 1795 as the year of the ampersand mark’s first known use in its current form. Varying references estimate ampersand was added to English dictionaries in the mid-1800s.

So how are careful, formal writers applying the mark today? The Associated Press Stylebook advises using the ampersand when it is part of a company’s formal name or composition title (e.g., Barnes & Noble, AT&T, Ben & Jerry’s); otherwise, the ampersand should not replace the word and, except in widely accepted abbreviations such as B&B (bed and breakfast) and R&B (rhythm and blues).

The Chicago Manual of Style concurs with the AP on that point. It also allows that “either and or & may be used in a publisher’s name, regardless of how it is rendered on the title page, provided the conjunction is treated consistently throughout a bibliography: Harper and Row or Harper & Row.” For titles of works, CMOS makes room for editorial discretion in allowing & to be changed to and.

Beyond the guidance offered by those two leading style sources, ampersand usage can range across people and channels. For example, in his January 2015 online article “Ampersand Usage—‘&’ or ‘And,’ ” business writer David Speaker identifies the ampersand as acceptable:

  • inside graphic or document tables or within parentheses when space is limited
  • in common shorthand expressions such as “rock & roll”
  • within a series to identify an item as part of its name and not a separator (e.g., “rock, pop, rhythm & blues, and hip-hop”)
  • in identifying more than one addressee, particularly a couple: “Mr. & Mrs. Johnson.”

If a series of three or more items includes an ampersand in place of the word and, including an Oxford comma after the ampersand is a matter of writer style and preference, although some may feel that omitting the comma is favorable to appearance:

Dear Mr., Mrs., & Dr. Johnson… (addressing three people with the surname Johnson)
Dear Mr., Mrs. & Dr. Johnson… further approves of using the mark in a series of three or more nouns to save character space or add subtle visual appeal, as in the Office of Travel, Health & Economics. Note that a serial comma is omitted before the ampersand.

As with any grammatical item with guidelines that have been stretched over time, the best bet is to choose your stylebook and consistently follow what it recommends. If you ever find yourself uncertain, simply remember the more sparing you are with ampersands in formal writing, the better.

If the article or the existing discussions do not address a thought or question you have on the subject, please use the "Comment" box at the bottom of this page.

26 responses to “& What About the Ampersand?”

  1. Rebecca Henry Lowndes says:

    I agree with all points made in the article, but would like to add that I’ve been horrified to see the ampersand used in poetry — real, serious, published poetry by well-known poets. When I encounter it in that context, I shut down, can read no further. To me it looks lazy, slapdash; its use dilutes the potential impact of the poem.

    • says:

      Poetry is ruled by creative purpose and often does not follow the rules of formal prose.

  2. Harold Toledo says:

    Where is the correct placement of the # in pump# 2 or pump #2?

  3. Marcus says:

    What about the use of “&” to join two nouns or verbs within a sentence when you don’t want to use “and” because, in this instance, “&” is not a conjunction (word separator) for adjoining two statements or phrases? For example, “Jason shall install & remove the ladder before climbing and ensure the ladder has been inspected in advance of the work.” Personally, I like this hierarchy of “&” & “and,” which brings clarity in writing.

    • says:

      The word and is a conjunction in your example. It joins the two words install and remove. As the post states, the style guides advise against use of the ampersand in formal writing except for the specific uses stated above.

  4. Lawrence says:

    Is ampersand allowed at the beginning of a sentence?

    Like – “& what about the other one?”

    • says:

      As the post indicates, in formal writing the ampersand should be limited to the specific uses stated. Therefore, we recommend rewriting to “And what about the other one?”

  5. Paula Micallef says:

    I noted on a map of “Civil War Military Stations Forts &c” used in 1861. The map was prepared by J.H. Colton for the “Rebellion Record” NewYork. I would like to know what the ampersand means with the lower case c.

    • says:

      This is an abbreviation for et cetera. The more commonly used abbreviation today is etc.

  6. Seek says:

    Every article online talks about formal or business writing with regard to proper usage of the ampersand. What about the lay conversation? Please expand on “this & that” (not specifically). Thank you.

    • says:

      Informal daily communication has no particular rules, but one might consider using the ampersand where there are multiple uses of “and” in a sentence and the writer would like to make it less apparent (e.g., She wants bread & butter, potato chips, and peanut butter & jelly). In other instances, the ampersand might just look better to someone (e.g. “a little this & that”).

  7. Faisal says:

    In terms of business titles and department names, would it be possible to use the “&” in a title that contains three nouns?

    Example: Department of Development, Alliances, and Advancement

    Would it be possible to say: Department of Development, Alliances & Advancement. Or would that change the meaning? If so, would the correct application here be: Department of Development & Alliances & Advancement?

    • says:

      Since the ampersand represents “and,” the following titles would have the same meaning:
      Department of Development, Alliances, and Advancement
      Department of Development, Alliances & Advancement

  8. Myrle says:

    When using an ampersand in an abbreviation such as B&B, should spaces be used? I.e. which is more correct: “B&B” or “B & B”?

  9. Judith Berman says:

    Can I use an ampersand in a business card describing what the client does, like Jeweler designer & Goldsmith?

    • says:

      Formal rules are not always followed for business cards and other promotional items. The ampersand could be considered acceptable if you are looking to save character space or add subtle visual appeal to a business card. We are also wondering if you meant to identify the titles as “Jeweler, Designer & Goldsmith” (punctuated and capitalized as such).

  10. says:

    I’d like some guidance on when to use “&” when writing for webpages. Would I use it in titles of the page or lower on the page when introducing a new section? Another instance might be when introducing a list of things on a section of a webpage: “Get a coat, hat and gloves for 20% off.”
    Technically this is a title to that section of the webpage. Is there a general rule to follow?

    • says:

      As the post states, the more sparing you are with ampersands in formal writing, the better. However, the ampersand could be considered acceptable if you are looking to save character space or add subtle visual appeal to a website. In particular, in marketing content and on web pages, you may often see the ampersand in content heads and subheads. In body content, ampersand use may be sparser (e.g., used only when part of an established phrase or a proper name, such as a company name).

  11. Scott says:

    When attempting to join to nouns that contain the word and, is it acceptable to use both ampersands AND the word and? For example:
    “I would like the menu to contain peanut butter and jelly and ham and cheese sandwiches.”
    Some interpreting this could view this as two kinds of sandwiches: 1) peanut butter and jelly 2) ham and cheese. OR they could interpret it as four kinds: 1) peanut butter 2) jelly 3) ham 4) cheese. (Yes, I ate jelly sandwiches as a kid.)
    In this case, wouldn’t “peanut butter & jelly and ham & cheese sandwiches” be much clearer?

    • says:

      We recommend writing “I would like the menu to contain peanut butter & jelly and ham & cheese sandwiches.”

  12. Hannah says:

    What about this one? The company name is K&J Aquatic Corporation. Can I use the ampersand in creating formal letters such as memorandum and nondisclosure agreement, or should I replace it with the word “and”?

  13. Sheila says:

    What are your thoughts on using the ampersand when referring to a couple’s names, for example: “Marie & Chris” or “Marie and Chris”?

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