Clauses and Phrases
A clause is a group of words containing a subject and verb. An independent clause is a simple sentence. It can stand on its own.
She is hungry.
I am feeling well today.
A dependent clause cannot stand on its own. It needs an independent clause to complete a sentence. Dependent clauses often begin with such words as although, since, if, when, and because.
Although she is hungry …
Whoever is hungry …
Because I am feeling well …
|Although she is hungry,||she will give him some of her food.|
|Whatever they decide,||I will agree to.|
A phrase is a group of words without a subject-verb component, used as a single part of speech.
Best friend (noun phrase)
Needing help (adjective phrase; see the "Adjectives and Adverbs" section later in this chapter)
With the blue shirt (prepositional adjective phrase; see the "Prepositions" section later in this chapter)
For twenty days (prepositional adverb phrase)